Source:  CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS    Tag:  fungus-like protists reproduce with
Kingdom monera consist of microorganisms which have no nucleus membrane (prokaryote) so the nucleus material is spread in the cytoplasm. Monera has nucleus acid (DNA), cytoplasm, and cell membrane. Monera consist of bacteria and blue algae.
Bacteria are procaryotic organism and small size which can only be observed by strong magnification using a strong microscope. The characteristic of bacteria are as follows.
1)Consist of one cell (unicellular)
2)The size is 4-8 micron
3)When they group (form colony), bacteria can be seen
4)Have no chlorophyll
5)Can live in various environment
6)Breed asexually by dividing itself and sexually by conjugation
7)If environment condition is bad, bacteria form spores which are called endospores. On the contrary, in suitable environment, bacteria will breed (divide themselves) fast.
1)The Shape of bacteria
Bacillus shape are distinguished into:
(1)Monobacilli; bacteria which are shaped like a single rod
(2)Diplobacilli; bacteria which are shaped like pairs of rod
(3)Streptobacilli; bacteria which join together to form a structure resembling a chain
Bacteria which are spherical in shape (coccus) can be distinguished into:
(1)Monococcus; bacteria which are shaped like individual spheres
(2)Diplococcus; bacteria which are shaped like pairs of spheres
(3)Sarcina; spherical bacteria which make groups of four to form a cube
(4)Streptococcus; spherical bacteria which group to make a lung structure resembling a chain
(5)Staphylococcus; spherical bacteria which make a colony to form a structure resembling grapes
There are three kinds of spiral bacteria, they are:
(1)Spiral; the group of bacteria which are shaped like a spiral, example: spirilum
(2)Vibrio or comma shape is assumed as imperfect spiral shape, example: Vibrio comma, the cause of cholera disease
(3)Spirochetes; the group of bacteria which have a spiral shape that can move
2)Bacteria Method of Living
They live as saprophytes and some as parasites. Saprophytic bacteria are very useful for the environment because they function as decomposer. On the contrary, parasitic bacteria are very harmful to the parent body.
3)The Reproduction of Bacteria
a)Asexual Reproduction
Asexual reproduction in bacteria id done by binary fission.
b)Sexual Reproduction
Sexual reproduction in bacteria is done by conjugation.
4)Classification of Bacteria
a)Based on Shape
b)Based on Method of Obtaining Food
(1)heterotrophic Bacteria
(a) Saprophytic
(b) Parasitic bacteria
(2)Autotrophic Bacteria
(a)Photoautotrophic bacteria
(b)Chemoautotrophic bacteria
c)Based on the Need of Oxygen
(1)Aerobic bacteria: bacteria which use free oxygen in their respiration process
(2)Anaerobic bacteria: bacteria which do not use free oxygen in the respiration process
5)The Role of Bacteria In Everyday Life
a)Useful Bacteria are as follows
(1)Acebacter xylinum is used in process of making nata de coco which is made of coconut milk
(2)Acebacter is used to change alcohol into vinegar acid
(3)Azotobacters live freely in soil and can catch nitrogen from the air so, it can fertilize soil
(4)Escherichia coli rots food in the large intestine and produce vitamin K
(5)Lactobacillus bulgaricus is used in the process of making yoghurt
(6)Lactobacillus casei is used in cheese making
(7)Pseudomonas denitrificans can produce vitamin B-12
(8)Rhizobium Leguminosorum makes symbiosis with beans to bond free nitrogen
(9) Streptococcus bulgaricus is used in the making of acid milk (yoghurt) and streptococcus grideus can produce streptomycin antibiotic
b)Bacteria which are harmful are as follows
(1)Pathogenic bacteria in humans, animals, and plants
(a)Salmonella typhi can cause typhoid disease
(b)Vibrio comma causes cholera disease
(c)Clostridium tetani causes tetanus disease
(d)Mycobacterium tubercolosis causes TBC disease
(e)Mycobacterium leprae cause leprosy decease
(2)Saprophytic bacteria which live in live in food stuff so the food becomes rotten
b.Blue Algae
1)Characteristics of Blue Algae
a)Often called Cynobacteria
b)The simplest algae
c)The body is monocellular or multicellular and some live in colonies
d)Have chlorophyl so they can make photosytesis process
e)Sometimes make heterocyst which can bond nitrogen change it into ammonia
f)Several kinds excrete poisonous compound
g)Live on the ground, stone, wood skin, in fresh water, and the sea
2)Kinds of Blue Algae
a)Chroococcus and gleocapsa are monocellular blue algae
b)Polycystis is a blue algae which lives in colonies
c)Oscillatoria, Rivularia, and Nostoc are blue algae which are thread-shaped
3)The Role of Blue Algaein Everyday Life
a)Beneficial Blue Algae
(1)Several blue algae fertilize soil
(2)Anabaena azollae make symbiosis with azolla pinnata
(3)Some blue algae can be used to make food
b)Harmful Blue Algae
(1)Several blue algae which live in the water excrete poison
(2)Blue algae can grow on walls and stones, making them easily decay
Kingdom protista is divided into 3 groups, namely:
a)Plant-like protists
The characteristic of algae are as follows
1)They are monocellular or multicellular organism
2)Algae have no root, stem, nor leaf
3)Commonly live in water, some live on land and usually in humid places
4)Algae are used by humans as a nutrition source, fertilizer source, various variable commodities
5)Some algae have heterotrophic property, live as saprophytic, and some live as parasites
6)Commonly algae are autotrophic
Algae are distinguished into several phyla as follows
1)Chrysophyta Phylum (Golden Algae)
The characteristic of golden algae are as follws
a)Some have monocellular body, some have multicellular body
b)Their shape is almost like a ball (monocellular) and almost like branched thread with no partition (multicellular)
c)Their colour varies from yellowish green to yellowish brown
d)Live in fresh water, and sometimes in purified drinking water
e)Can move
f)Have food reserve
g)The cell wall contains silicate so they are also called silicate algae
h)The shells of dead diatoms fall to the seabed and become diatomite
2)Chlorophyta Phylum (Green Algae)
The characteristic of green algae are as follows
a)They are algae with the largest number of member, about 7,000 species
b)Almost the same as higher level plantsbecause they have chlorophyl and carotene
c)The resrve food is in the form of starch
d)The cell wall consist of cellulose
e)Body shape varies
f)Live in fresh water, sea water, and humid places
g)Chlamydomonas sp, the most interesting green algae, have one cell, commonly live in ditches and lakes. Green algae live in colonies are green algae which form filaments. Spyrogira sp. can reproducec asexually by fragmentation and sexually by conjugation
3)Phaeophyta Phylum (Brown Algae)
The characteristic of brown algae are as follows
a)They act as important seaweed in the ecosystem
b)Have brown pigment or fucoxanthion
c)Their body consist of many cells and has a shape like a rod or sheet
d)Have rhizoid, a smooth sheet , stalk, floater, and transporter hair
e)Commonly live on cold beached, some also live in fresh water
f)They are useful as food material, material to make toothpaste, sweets, and cosmetic cream
g)The examples of brown algae are Laminaria, Fucus, Sargassum, Nereocystis, and Macrocystis
4)Rhodophyta Phylum (Red Algae)
The characteristic of red algae areas follows
a)The body consist of many cells, has a shape like a sheet or thread
b)Contains pigment of phycobilin which consist of phycoerythrin (red) and phycocyanine (blue)
c)The size is smaller than brown algae
d)Live on the sea
e)Useful to make agar, for cosmetic, paint, ice cream, yoghurt, and mixture of bar chocolate
f)The examples of red algae are Euchema spinosum, Porphyra, Rhodimenia, Gelidium, Glacilaria, and Chondrus
5)Euglenophyta Phylum
Characteristic of Euglenophyta are as follows
a)They are monocellular algae
b)The shape is oval, has whip (flagella), eye spot, and green colour because they have chlorophyll
c)Move actively like animals, but perform photosynthesis like plants
d)Commonly live in fresh water, but certain kinds are found in animal digestion channels
e)Have contractyl vacuole so the need for intracellular water can be controlled
f)They eat by entering food through the cell mouth like animals
g)Reproduce by dividing themselves
b)Animal-like Protists
Based on their movement method, protozoa are grouped into four phyla as follows
1)Rhizopoda Phylum
The characteristic of Rhizopods are as follows
a)Have no fixed shape
b)Some live freely in nature and some are parasites
c)Move catch their food by using false legs. Their food is bacteria or other organic materials
d)Reproduce by dividing themselves. The division process is done directly by binary fission
e)Examples are Amoeba sp. (Ameba), Foraminifera
2)Flagellata Phylum
Flagellates have a specific characteristic in that they move by using whip hair (flagella), example is Trypanosoma.
3)Ciliata Phylum
Ciliates have vibrating hair (cilia) which always vibrates, function as movement organ and to take food, example is Paramecium. Paramecium is also called sandal animal, because its shape is almost like a sandal sole. The other examples of ciliates are Voeticella, Stentor, and Dipletus.
4)Sporozoa Phylum
They are called sporozoans because in one phase of their life cycle, they can form a kind of spore, for example Plasmodium. Plasmodium breeds vegetatively and generatively. Vegetative reproduction is done by forming spores inside human body, while generative reproduction is done by forming gametes.
c)Fungus- Like Protists
Organisms which are included into this group are characterized by a moving phaselike Amoeba, the reproduction method which is almost like fungus, and the absence of chlorophyll. The examples are mucus fungus (Myxomycete) and water fungus (Oomycete).
a)Characteristic of Fungi
1)Have a nucleus and cell wall (eukaryotic)
2)Have spores
3)Have no chlorophyl so they are heterotrophic
4)They are in the form of cell or branched thread
5)The cell wall is of cellulose or chitin, or both
6)Breed sexually and asexually
7)Live in rubbish, rotten wood, or rotten food withenough humidity
b)Fungi reproduction
Fungi reproduce sexually and asexually. Asexually reproduction is by producing spores which begins with the formation of spore producing body, examples sporangium,ascus, basidium, or conidiophores. Sexual repropoduction is carried out by means of white, fine threads, which are able to make interthreads sexual union because their kinds are different.
c)Classification of Fungi
Based of their reproduction method, fungi are distinguished into 4 subdivisions as follows
1)Subdivision Zygomycota
An example of Zygomycota fungi is tempe fungus (Rhizopus) which has unpartitioned hypha. Another example is mycorhiza.
2)Subdivision Ascomycota
These fungi make spores in a bag (bowl)-shaped structure, so they are also called bag fungi. Some of these fungi are beneficial and some harmful. The beneficial fungi are used to make food, for example Neurospore is used to make ‘oncom’ and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ia used to make bread, ‘tape’, and sake (beer). The harmful fungi in ascomycetes are those which cause a disease in humans, animals, and plants. Some types of Ascomycetes also make symbiosis (associate) with algae to form lichens. Other examples of it are Panicillium and Aspergillus.
3) Subdivision Basidiomycota
The characteristic of fungi which are included into the subdivision of Basidiomycota are as follows
a)Have macroscope size
b)The hypha has a cross partition
c)Consist of a collection of mycelium threads which group to form a fungus bbody that is a fruit body
d)The shape is like an umbrella (cover)
e)Spores ae apread by the wind and if they fall to right place they will grow to be new hyphae
4)Subdivision Deuteromycota
Deuteromycota is a special group of fungus of which the sexual reproduction. The classification of fungi into this subdivision is temporally,because further research is being done. So a fungus which was formerly included into Deuteromycote then if it was found out to able to produce spores from the union process of its hyphas, the classification will change.
d)The Role of Fungi in Everyday Life
1)Fungi which are beneficial are as follows
a)Rice straw fungus and ear fungus are delicious food materials and have high protein
b)As agent (material) in food making
c)As decomposer bin the ecosystem
2)Fungi which are harmful are as follows
a)Amanita phalloides causes disturbance in the kidney, liver, and heart
b)Pneumonia carinii causes lung disease
c)Epidermophyton causes skin fungus on humans
d)Several Ascomycotes can causes disease in humans, animal, and plants
e)Candida sp. causes mouth ulceration and luecorrhea on women
Based on the carrying vessels, the kingdom plantae is divided into two, they are:
a)Plants which Have No Vascular Tissues
1)Characteristic of Mosses
a)Mosses already have a structure which is almost like the root, stem, and leaf
b)Have no vascular tissue
c)The body size is relatively small, about 15 cm
d)Live in humid or wet places
e)In their life cycle, they experience alternation between sexual reproduction by producing sexual cells (gametes) and vegetative reproduction phase by making spores
2)The Reproduction of Moss
a)A spore grows to be fine threads called protonema
b)A protonema has buds at several parts. These bud then grow to be mosses
c)After maturity, a moss will produce a male reproduction organ (spermatozoid), and a female reproduction (ovum)
d)Then the sperm fertilizes the ovum to produce zygote and grows tobe sporogonium
e)The sporogonium produces spores. The process continues to form a life cycle
3)Classification of Mosses
a)Liverwort Class
Liverwort is shaped like a leaf with a split edge. Liverworts commonly grow in wet places, especially on the mountain. Example Marchantia polymorpha, and Marchantia geminate
b)Hornwort Class
Anthoceros is an example of plant whi9ch is included into the class of hornworts.
c)True Moss Class
True mosses have small leaves which are arranged in a spiral-shped hair fiber on their stem. Their height ranges between 0.5 and 1.5 cm. this moss can be easily seen because they are found everywhere, in stone gap, on the roof, on the tree, and so on.
b)Plants with Vascular Tissues
The plants which are included into this group are thoset which have specific vascular tissues which are pipe-shaped. Based on the function, vascular tissues are divided into two, wood vascular which to transport water and minerals, and sieve vascular which transport food materials of photosynthesis. Plants which have vascular tissues are different from plants which have vascular tissues. Examples of plants have vascular are ferns and seed plants.
a)Characteristic of Ferns
(1)Included into the kind of cormophytes
(2)The root functions to absorb water and food substance required
(3)Commonly, their stem is a rhizome which is planted underground, very short, and segmented
(4)Based on its function leaf is distinguished into two parts, they are:
(a)Tropophyl, functions as the place for photosynthesis process
(b)Sporophyl, functions as the place of formation of spores and photosynthesis process
(5)Breed vegetatively by producing buds spores, and generatively
(6)Commonly live on land, especially in damp places
b)The Reproduction of Ferns
The order of lifeb cycle alternation is as follows
(1)The sporangium in sorus which is mature will break, preceded by the breaking of the indusium, and the spores comes out
(2)The spore which falls in the right place will grow and form a protalium.
(3)On the lower surface of prothlium, there grows an antheridium which produces spermatozoid and archegonium which produces ova
(4)The spermatozoid fertilizer the ovum and grows to be a zygote
(5)The zygote grows to be a young fern which has roots and a stem. And the process continues to form a life style
c)Classification on Ferns
(1)Division Psilophyta
Ferns which are included into this group are Psilotums. The characteristic of Psilatums are: have no real root and leaf, only have rhizome and rhizoid, are commonly found in tropical and subtropical regions.
(2)Division Lycophyta
Ferns which are included into this group are Lycopodium and Selaginella. They have sporangium which is produce d by specific leaf, do not make photosysthesis, so their food is obtained from living together with fungi, they are tropical plants that also live by sticking trees.
(3)Division Sphenophyta
Ferns which are included into this group are horse tail ferns. Their stem contains silica and in each segment there is scale-shaped leaf.
(4)Division Pterophyta
They are also called true ferns. The shape varies and they are commonly found in humid and muddy places. The leaves of several kinds of this true fern are edible as vegetables. Some examples are suplir, pakis, and pole fern. The stem of pole ferns is big like a palm tree. Some live freely in nature and some live epiphytically on trees.
d)The Role of Ferns in Everyday Life
(1)They can be used as decorative plants
(2)They can be used to produce medicines
(3)They can be used for vegetable
(4)They can be used for green manure material
(5)They can be used in flower arrangements
2)Seed Plants
a)Open Seed Plants
Open seed plants are the plants whose seeds are not covered by seed leaves or cotyledons so they are readily visible. The characteristic of open seed plants are as follows:
(1)Commonly are in the shape of trees, have tap root, but some have fibrious roots like ‘pakis haji’
(2)The stem is big
(3)Never drop their leaves so the leaves always look green
(4)Commonly have strobili which are packs of seed leaves that function as reproduction organs
(1)Order Cycadales
The characteristics of this order are asfollows
(a)Shaped like a palm tree
(b)The stem has no branches, its height can reach 10 cm
(c)Has fibrous roots
(d)The leaves are located at the end of the stem
(e)The male and female strobili are found in two different trees
(f)Example is ‘pakis haji’
(2) Order Gnetales
The characteristics arec as follows
(a)Commonly has branches
(b)Has a tap root
(c)The leaf is rather with parallel leaf veins
(d)Has male and female strobili which are not in one stalk, but still in the same plant
(e)Example is ‘melinjo tree’
(3)Order Coniferales
The characteristic of pines are as follows
(a)The leaf is needle-shaped
(b)The stem is straight and its height can reach 40 cm
(c)Male and female strobili are located in the same treebut separate
(d)Examples are pine tree, balsam tree, and dammar tree
b)Closed Seed Plants
Angiosperms are the plants whose seeds are covered by cotyledons. Angiosperms are the plants with true flower. Based on the number of cotyledons, angiosperms are distinguished into two classes, they are:
The characteristic of it are
(a)Have seeds with an embryo having one cotyledon
(b)Have fibrous roots
(c)The stem commonly has no branches and does not grow large
(d)The leaf is long and ribbon-shaped
(e) The leaf veins are parallel or curved
(f)The number of flower parts is 3or a multiple 3
(g) Packs of wood vessels and sieve vessel are irregularly located
(h)Consist of several families, they are
(1)The characteristic of Gramineae
(a)Have fibrous roots
(b)The stem is hollow and segmented
(c)The leaf is ribbon-shapd with parallel veins
(d)The young stem is covered with sheaths
(e)The flower grow at the end of stem
(f)Rice fruit is protected by chaff which comes from its flower tent
(2)The uses of Gramineae
(a)The leaf can be used as cattle’s food, especially grass
(b)Sugar cane produces sugar
(c)Rice, wheat, barley, and millet produce seeds
(d)Lemongrass produces oil
(e)Bamboo has many uses
(f)Alang-alang can prevent soil from erotion
(g)Fibers can be used to make string and as material for textile
(1)The characteristic of Palmae are as follows
(a)Have fibrous roots
(b)The stem has no branches
(c)The leaf sheath is single or multiple
(d)The flower is composite, knob-shaped, and located in the leaf pit or end of stem
(2)The uses of Palmae are as follows
(a)Rottan, its stem climbs and is widely used for household equinment
(b)Areca palm is used for additional food when eating betel
(c)Salak fruit is delicious food
(d)Sugarpalm is tapped for its sap to make wine and to make palm sugar
(e)Coconut, its milk can be drunk and used to make coconut sugar
(f)Sago, its stem pith contains a lot of starch so it produces sago flour which is used as staple food
(g)Il palm, Palm oil is very important for artificial butter or margarine industry
(1)The characteristic of Musaceae are as follows
(a)(a) the stem is a false stem
(b)Leaves have veins and are pinnately arranged, with leaf sheaths covering the stem
(c)The flower is a composite flower, with many flowers on one stalk
(d)Mot of them have no seeds
(e)Reproduce by budding
(2)The uses of Musaceae are as follows
(a)They are eaten as fruits
(b)Used to wrap food
(c)Used to make fiber and as a string
(d) Orchidaceae
(1)The characteristic of Orchidaceae are as follows
(a)Have rhizomatous roots
(b)The flower end of stem enlarges to store water
(c)The leaves are fleshly, with even edge, and are arranged alternately in two rows
(d)One flower has male and female sex organ
(e)Commonly live in tropical regions
(2)The uses of Orchidaceae are as follows
(a)Different kinds of orchids are widely used for decoration plants or flowerarrangments
(b)Vanilla is used for aromatics in foods and drinks
(1)The characteristic of Zingiberaceae are as follows
(a)The rhizome from which the stem grows spreads under the ground
(b)Have leaf sheaths covering the stem
(c)The leaves are alternately arranged or composed in spiral shape
(d)Have male and female sex organs in one flower
(2)The uses of Zingiberaceae, among others, are as follows
(1)Rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, sago, nad sorghum are the plants that produce starch
(2)Coconut, and oil palm are the producer of vegetable oil
(3)Pineapple, banana, and salak are eaten as fruit
(4)Lemongrass, ginger, galangal, turmeric, greater galangal, and so on serve as materials for medicines and spices
(5)Different kinds of palmae and orchids are widely cultivated as decoration plants
(2) Dicotyledons
Dicotyledons have characteristic as follows
(a)The main characteristic is that they have seeds with two cotyledons
(b)Have tap roots
(c)The stem commonly has branches and enrlages
(d)The leaves are spread facing each other or arranged in a coral shape
(e)The leaf veins are pinnately or radially arranged
(f)The number of flower parts is 2, 4, , and 5 or the multiples of those numbers
(g)The packs of wood vessels and sieve vessels are located regularly
(1)The characteristics of Euphorbiceae are as follows
(a)If the body part is hurt, it will excrete white resin
(b)The female flower consist of one pistil with three pistil heads
(c)The fruit breaks when it is ripe and it has three chambers
(2)The uses of Euphorbiceae plant are as follows
(a)Cassava, its tuber contains starch and is delicious to eat
(b)Rubber, the stem skin produce latex
(c)Jarak, its seed produces castor oil
(d)Candletus are used as spices
(e)‘ceremai’ is consumed as food
(f)Puring, kastuba are used as decoration plants
(1)The characteristic of Papilionaceae are as follows
(a)The roots have a lot of nodules as the plants
(b)The leaves are simple, pinnately arranged
(c)The corolla is shaped like a butterfly and consists of 5 petals, 1 larger petal is called flag, and 2 other petals on each side forming a ‘boat’ shape are called ‘keel’
(d)The fruit is leguminous
(2)The uses of Papilionaceae are as follows
(a)Peanut, the seeds are eaten or consumed as vegetable, they can also be used to make oil
(b)Dadap is used as a shading plant
(c)Angsana is taken for its wood
(d)Orok-orok is used as green manure
(e)Soybean is used to make tempe or ‘oncom’
(f)Winged beans, peas and green bens are eaten as vegetable
(1)The characteristic of Solanaceae are as follows
(a)Some have flowers which are trumpet-shaped and others have flowers that are star-shaped
(b)The ovary is located on the flower base and has two chambers
(c)The fruit is a valved fruit
(2)The uses of Solanaceae are as follows
(a)Potato, its tuber becomes the staple food of western people
(b)Tobacco, its dried leaf is made cigarettes
(c)Tomato, its fruit is eaten and contains a lot of vitamin
(d)Eggplant is much favoured and is delicious
(e)Chili is used as spices and medicine
(d) Myrtaceae
(1)The characteristic of Myrtaceae are vas follows
(a)Most of them are herbs, but some are woody
(b)The leaf if simple with even edge
(c)The sepals stick to each other
(d)Its flower is buni fruit
(2)The uses of Myrtaceae are as follows
(a)Clove, its flower buds are used to make clove oil
(b)Guavas are eaten as fruit
(c)Eucalyptus, its leaves produce eucalyptus oil
(1)The characteristic of Caesalpinaceae are as follows
(a)They grow as trees or herbs
(b)The leaf has single leaflet or double leaflets
(c)They have 20 stamens
(d)The fruit is leguminous
(2)The uses of Caesalpinaceae are as follows
(a)Peacock flower are often used by people as ornamental herbs or plants
(b)Flamboyant is used as ornamental plant
(c)‘Ketepeng’, its young leaves can be used to make medicine for skin deceace
(d)The uses of dicotyledons are as follows
(1)The source of protein and fat
(2)Source of carbohydrate
(3)Source of minerals
(4)Vegetables as food material
(5)Material for industry
(6)As decoration plants
Based on the presence or absence of backbone, the kingdom animalia is grouped into two groups, they are:
The classification of animals can be seen from the body structure, kinship, physiological function, and chemical composition of the body. Invertebrates animals consist of various shape, some are macroscope, microscope, solitary, sessile, motile, and so on. Incertebrates animals are divided into 8 phyla, that is as follows
Characteristic of porifera are as follows
(a)The body consist of many cells
(b)On the entire of their body surface there are pores
(c)Commonly live in the sea, but some also live in fresh water
(d)Stick on their living place
(e)Have a skeleton made of cale substance of flexible fiber called spongin
(f)Reproduce vegetatively by bud formation and generatively by the union of egg cell and sperm to form a zygote
(g)Based on its costintuent skeleton, porifera are divided into 3 classes as follows
(1)Calcarea, the skeleton is formed by cale substance
(2)Hexactinallidae, the skeleton is formed by diatomic subtanse
(3)Demospongiae, the skeleton has no spicules
The characteristic of Coelanterata are as follows
a)The body shape is like a tube or hollow bag
b)Every tentacle contains cnidoblast cells
c)The body skeleton consist of cale substance, and keratin
d)Live in water, mainly sea water
e)They breathe with the entire body surface
f)Food is digested in the body cavity which functions as a stomach
g)Some are polypus and some are medusa
h)Vegetative reproduction is done by bud and polyp formation and generative reproduction is by the union of egg cell with spermatozoid cell
The characteristic of Platyhelminthes are as follows
a)The body is flat, soft, and without body cavity
b)They are commonly hermaphroditic
c)Only have a mouth
d)Have no blood circulation respiration system
e)Commonly live as parasites
Platyhelminthes are divided into 3 classes as follows
Vibrating hair is found on their body so they are called vibrating hair worm. Examples are planaria, and bipalium.
Have 2 sucking devices. One around the mouth and another behind the mouth. These sucking devices are used to stick themselves to the liver of cattle. Example is fasciola hepatica.
The body is shaped like a ribbon and segmented. One segment of tapeworm is called proglottid. Live as parasites in the intestine of humans or animals. For examples are taenia saginata, taenia solium, echinococcus granulosus.
The characteristic of Nemathelminthes are as follows
a)The body is round, long, and the ends are sharp
b)The body is bilaterally symmetrical has no segment
c)The skin is covered with wax layer or cuticle and is colourless
d)The mouth is found everywhere, such as on land, in the sea, fresh water, and some also live as parasites
e)Certain worms can produce 15,000 eggs per day and these eggs can fly away with dust
f)Examples are ascaris lumbricoides, ancylostoma duodenale, oxyuris vermicularis, trichinella spiralis, filarial bancrofti
The characteristic of Annelida are as follows
a)The body is round and long, consist of rings which are connected to one another
b)The body wall consist of 3 layers, those are the exoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
c)The body consists of joints and segments
d)The front part is tapering
e)Have no eye
f)At the front end of the body there is a mouth, while at the back end there is an anus