Scabies - General Information

Source:  Scabies - General Information    Tag:  scabies pictures

Mange - scabies mite, is divided into endoparasitic or antropofilnuyu (dwells in humans), and ectoparasitic or zooantropofilnuyu (parasitic in animals and humans) species. In children, most often found anthropo-hydrophilic mite Sarcoptes scabiei (acarus hominis). The female mite has a length of 0.4-0.45 mm and a width 0,2.5-0,38 mm male - respectively 0.2 and 0,14-0,19 mm. Males die after copulation. The fertilized female penetrates the stratum corneum of the epidermis and lays parallel to the surface of the skin itch stroke length of 5-10 mm, which lays up to 50 eggs within 6-8 weeks of life. Of eggs in 6 days larvae appear that after 14-15 days formed in the adult mites, living up to 1.5-2 months. Children become infected by direct contact with patients or in subjects who were in their use (clothing, linens, toys) . Scabies infection contribute to poor hygiene of the skin, excessive sweating, asteniziruyuschie chronic diseases - malnutrition, vegetodistoniya, diabetes mellitus . The female mite extracted from the itch of the preserves viability from 5 to 15 days. Clinic and symptoms of scabies . The incubation period of 3-7 days to 10-12 and last longer, up to 1-1.5 months, as passed, not only ticks, and eggs. Characteristic are intense itching, worse at night in the warmth of the bed, and twin-vesicular papules elements. In place of the introduction of the female mite occurs with a transparent bubble or blister content is not more millet grains. Laying eggs, the female mite itch constitutes progress is projected onto the surface of the epidermis in the form of thin strips of grayish in length from a few millimeters to 1 cm at the end of the visible bubble scabies, which is female. In place of entry and exit and mite might be small papules or blisters. The rash is located on the flexor surfaces of upper and lower limbs, interdigital folds hands on the trunk, especially in the waist, abdomen and on the front of the axillary cavities. In children, scabies elements may be located on the palms, soles, face, and the boys on the skin of the penis; According to LA and FA Shteynluhtu Zverkov, unlike adults, infants with scabies are blisters, spots, blisters, Moisture on the face, scalp, in the neck, and paronychia onychite on the hands. As a result of intense itching occur abundant excoriations, which are located not only in the habitats of ticks, but also in remote areas. Scabies is often difficult empyesis with lymphangitis and lymphadenitis, as well as eczematization. Violation of nighttime sleep may be associated with neurotic reactions. When eczematization and associated pyoderma in the blood was leukocytosis, eosinophilia, lymphocytosis, ESR increase in urine - albuminuria (a complication of jade). In childhood and adolescence, the symptoms of scabies are characterized by a marked inflammatory manifestations, than in adults. The diagnosis of scabies . As already mentioned, are typical complaints of intense itching, worse in warm bed, and referred to the localization of pairs of vesicles, papules or vesicles, urticarial elements. They can be extracted from mites or the products of his life (eggs, excrement), which is easily confirmed microscopic study. Sometimes it is difficult to diagnose scabies in infants who have clinical manifestations of its symptoms are similar to strofulyusa. However, the nature of the night itching and rashes typical layout and especially the discovery of scabies in the mother, father or other persons having contact with the child, allow timely diagnosis. Difficulties arise when the diagnosis of scabies in the event of complications of pyoderma: piodermicheskih detection elements in the typical locations for scabies provides a basis for further investigation or a trial of treatment. Attach importance to the basis of Hardy (impetiginoznye rash on extensor surface of the shoulders, forearms and elbows), which is found in three times more likely to itch moves. In recent years, the children, there are cases of atypical scabies flow when there is no characteristic localization of lesions and itch moves, and itchy small or even absent. Such atypical, blurred shapes often seen in contact. is a particular form of Norwegian scabies , which occur in our country only as casuistry. The disease is caused by the same tick, but it is characterized by the absence of itching, extensive erythematous skin lesions covered with numerous crusts tightly attached dirty grayish color, which show a large number of ticks. Affects the trunk, limbs, scalp and face, the process is in the nature of erythroderma. During this variety of mange chronic, relapsing. Infection can also occur from animals suffering from scabies caused by mites zooantropofilnoy kind. In these cases, the rash is not abundant and is of limited added value. During the abortive disease, with a slight itch. For example, the scabies in cats runs hard, but when infected person takes over its benign character. The incubation period is shortened to 10-12 hours, the rash is represented by serous-papular elements asymmetrically located on the edematous erythematous spots, mainly in those areas who had contact with sick animals. scabies . LA and FA Shteynluht Zverkov in the treatment of infants is recommended rubbing 5% sulfur ointment, it is best mixed with Vinylinum, 2 times a day for 4-5 days. A day after the unction of the child should wash and change clothes. benzyl benzoate - is used in a 20% suspension (mixed 20 g of benzyl benzoate, 2 g of green soap and 78 ml of water). Children under 3 years, to appoint 10% suspension of benzyl benzoate. Her rubbing a cotton swab 2 times with 10-minute break for 2 days. If appointed benzilbenzoatnaya 10% ointment, applied to her for 3 days. After treatment, the child wash and change bedding and underwear. When complications in the form of pyoderma or eczema, scabies before applying ointment with 3-5% methylene blue or brilliant green, or 2% of the sulfur-tar ointment. For the treatment of scabies by the method prescribed for children Dem'yanovich solutions at concentrations of 4% solution of concentrated hydrochloric acid and 40% sodium thiosulfate. In infants, rather than rubbing the skin is moistened only by repeating the course in 3-4 days. In order to prevent drug dermatitis and itching on the mechanism of fixation of the conditioned reflex to children, especially with exudative diathesis, recommend that the first days of anti-itch treatment assign desenbiliziruyuschie and antihistamines, calcium gluconate, suprastin, tavegil etc. After treatment with any of these methods can be stored in a residual for 5-7 days. Therefore, children who received therapy protivoskabioznuyu, watch every other day for 10 days, while the control observation was continued for 11 / 2 months. The prevention of scabies is accomplished by early diagnosis of disease and active case-finding. From August to October each year, recommended a time of 7 days check-ups in boarding schools, kindergartens and nurseries. Early treatment of children suffering from scabies, combined with inspection of all family members and persons involved in child care. During treatment and for complex control activities to children with scabies, forbid children to attend the team. For sick children in nurseries, kindergartens, schools, contact should be considered as children of the group or class. In the course of treatment and after at home and spend the final disinfection of the current (by district sanitary-epidemiological station).
Scabies - a contagious disease that occurs when entering the skin scabies mite, proceeds with severe itching and is characterized by skin lesions that are caused by the formation of the pathogen moves and scratches.
itch mite is very small in size: length 0.2-0.4 mm width 0.14 -0.35 mm, oval. Life expectancy is about a month. The larvae of mites and the males live on the skin surface. The female just pierce the stratum corneum of the skin, makes a move parallel to its surface, and which lays its eggs. The larvae of mites and then come to the surface of the skin, turning already here in the adult mite. Full development cycle takes about two weeks.
Regardless of the human itch mite can live for 2-3 days at room temperature, but at a temperature of 60C it would die already at 1:00, well, boiling, or vice versa - at temperatures below freezing mites are killed almost immediately.
scabies infection occurs through direct household contact with an ill person: a bed or underwear, towels, as well as through sexual contact. Often infection occurs through sponges and brooms in the bath. Less commonly, scabies is transmitted through a handshake. Children can be infected through toys.
The incubation period is 7-10 days.
itch mite makes low temperature, being boiled die only after 10 minutes, and is also resistant to many chlorine-containing disinfectants.

Symptoms

For scabies is characterized by a strong sharp itching, worse evening and night. Although the itching is an allergic reaction to the mites and their droppings. Therefore, when primary infection itch may take a week or more, but when re-infection reaction occurs in the very first day. On the skin noticeably eruption of small papules arranged in pairs-vesicular elements that are combed patients until bleeding point crusts and even linear scratching.
The most characteristic feature of scabies are mangy moves. In a place where female mites penetrated, there is a bubble the size of a millet grain, filled with transparent contents. Moving parallel to the skin, the female is doing itch move which on the surface of the skin looks as thin strips of grayish in length from a few millimeters to a centimeter. It was at this turn and the female lays her eggs. At the end of the itch is seen as a bubble, in which there is a female. Most often itch passages found on the skin of the hands, especially fingers, the wrist forward, as well as on the penis. Less likely to itch on the skin of the moves are the buttocks, abdomen, inner surfaces of hands and feet. In children, scabies may have elements on the palms, soles, and even the face. In adults, the same skin of the face, neck and interscapular area, underarms, palms and soles are not affected.

Consequences

It has been estimated that in the absence of treatment for only three months is not human skin can appear six generations of the mite, and the number of parasites can reach 150 million individuals.
Intense itching leads to scratching of the skin, such as damage to the skin can easily become infected, which often leads to secondary infection.
untimeliness of treatment can lead to various complications, the most common are dermatitis and pyoderma, is less common microbial eczema and urticaria . There may be boils , impetigo and ecthyma. In addition, the itch can become complicated and sexually transmitted diseases, because the integrity of the skin in the genital area is also violated, that allows you to easily penetrate any infection.
Against the background of long-term presence of scabies or inadequacy of its treatment may have more and neuro-psychological problems.

Treatments and possible complications

Without treatment, scabies never goes away. Treatment is specific cutaneous means. Scabies can be cured in 4-5 days. Especially because modern means can be used only 1-2 times depending on the most money and the degree of contamination. In identifying the scabies from one of the members of the family, preventive treatment is desirable to all.
The patient must be isolated from others. Most often, treatment is sulfur ointment, sulfur soap, as well as other drugs (emulsion ointment or benzyl, even with a single lubrication solution hyposulfite sodium ointment Wilkinson, Spregal). In severe cases, even antibiotics. But the drug must select the desired specialist. The physician must designate a course of treatment, follow the process and record a full recovery from illness. Especially as a specialist in complex and appoint another antihistamine drugs and giposesebiliziruyuschie to prevent dermatitis from drugs themselves and quickly remove the skin itch.
Scheduled skin ointment should be thoroughly rubbed into the skin. After the rubbing of the skin designated Antiparasitic products, we recommend a minimum of 12 hours without washing, preferably in the evening session of treatment carried out to the drug was on TV all night. Be sure to change underwear every day and bed linen.
must ensure that the treatment was complete, in order to exclude the possible return of the disease. It must be borne in mind that itching may continue for another several weeks after successful treatment (removal of ticks), which is not an indicator of the continuation of the disease. If this continue to use drugs, you can only exacerbate the symptoms, but because of the side effects of drugs themselves. Therefore we must strictly adhere to treatment regimens, in case of doubt, consult with your doctor.
In addition to the treatment itself is very important to conduct a complete disinfection of housing by special means. All linen should be boiled, and things that can not be boiled and toys should be packed in polythene bags without access to air and, if possible, bring in the cold for several days. You can also use special disinfectants. Linen is also desirable to carefully iron with a hot iron on both sides. Also necessary to wet cleaning and disinfection of premises and accessory items an infected person.
In addition, should warn friends who may have acquired, tested and seek treatment if necessary.