Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF)

Source:  Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF)    Tag:  medicine of dengue
DEFINITION
Diseases Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), his or her medical language called Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is a disease caused by dengue virus is transmitted through the bite of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which causes disturbances in capillary blood vessels and the blood clotting system, thus resulting in bleeding-bleeding.

The disease is commonly found in tropical regions such as Southeast Asia, India, Brazil, the United States including in all corners of Indonesia, except in places a height of more than 1000 meters above sea level. Physicians and other health personnel in the enforcement of the diagnosis is often wrong, because the tendency of early symptoms that mimic other diseases such as influenza and typhoid (typhoid).


SYMPTOMS
The period of shoot / incubation for 3-15 days after a person develops dengue virus. Furthermore, the patient will reveal a variety of signs and symptoms of dengue fever as follows:

    The sudden high fever 2-7 days (38-40 degrees Celsius).
    On examination torniquet test, it appears the larvae (puspura) bleeding.
    The presence of hemorrhage in the inner eyelid (conjunctiva), nosebleed (epitaksis), defecation with stool (peaces) in the form of mucus mixed with blood (melena), and others.
    Liver enlargement (Hepatomegaly).
    Decreased blood pressure causing shock.
    In laboratory tests (blood) occurs 3-7 days to drop below 100.000/mm3 platelets (thrombocytopenia), an increase in hematocrit values ‚Äč‚Äčabove 20% of normal value (hemoconcentration).
    The emergence of several clinical symptoms that accompany such as nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite (anorexia), abdominal pain, diarrhea, chills, cramps and headaches.
    Bleeding of the nose (nosebleeds) and gums.
    Fever sufferers perceived causes sore complaint / pain in the joints.
    The emergence of red spots on the skin due to rupture of blood vessels.


Transmission
The spread of dengue fever is transmitted through the bite of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, so that in areas of known presence of dengue disease will attack there may be other people will even be able to cause outbreaks of unusual for residents in the vicinity.


TREATMENT
The focus of treatment in patients with dengue disease is control bleeding, prevent or treat shock / presyok, namely to try to get people with a lot to drink about 1.5 to 2 liters of water in 24 hours (water and sugar syrup tea or milk).

The addition of body fluids through an IV (intravenous) may be needed to prevent excessive dehydration and hemoconcentration. Platelet transfusions performed if the platelet count dropped dramatically. Next is the provision of drugs to complaints that arise, for example:
- Paracetamol to help reduce fever,
- Electrolyte salts (ORS) if accompanied by diarrhea,
- Antibiotics are useful to prevent secondary infection.

Apply cold compresses, no need to ice because it can have an impact shock. Even some of the medical team suggested compress can be done with alcohol. Alternative medicine is commonly known by drinking guava juice bangkok, but efficacy has not been proven medically, but in reality can restore guava intravenous fluids and an increase in the value of blood platelets.


PREVENTION
Prevention is done by avoiding mosquito bites in the morning until evening, because aedes mosquito is active during the day (not night). For example, avoid being in a location that many mosquitoes in the daytime, especially in areas that are its DBD. Some of the most effective in preventing disease or controlling dengue through the method of vector control are:

    Mosquito eradication nest (PSN), solid waste management, modification of mosquito breeding sites byproduct of human activities, and home improvement design.
    Maintenance of larvae-eating fish (fighting fish / Betta fish) on the pond water, and bacteria (Bt.H-14).
    Fumigation / fogging (using malathion and fenthion).
    Abate powder gives (temephos) in places such as water reservoirs, water bowl, a vase of flowers, ponds, and others.

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