Chapter 15, 16 & 21 – Molecular Biology II AP Bio

Source:  Chapter 15, 16 & 21 – Molecular Biology II AP Bio    Tag:  lytic replication
Chapter 15, 16 & 21 – Molecular Biology II AP bio
I. Terms- Note cards

II. Connections
1. Lysogenic & Binary Fission
In the Lysogenic cycle, occurs when an outside DNA enters into a DNA sequence of an individual that is naturally dividing, and because of this the added DNA is passed down as well. In binary fission is when a newly infected DNA separate before the cell membrane makes protein to separate it. So if both Lysogenic and binary fusion occur it means the entire has been infected with the virus and the DNA will continue to make other infected cells, due to this separation, it is probably easier for a virus to attack or infect a cell that goes through binary fusion.

2. Conjugation & Bacterial transformation
Bacterial Transformation is when a change in a cell happens because a genetic alteration has been made or added. Bacterial transformation is seen mostly in bacteria. Conjugation is a type of bacterial transformation and occurs when a donor cell transfers plasmid DNA to a receiving cell; and when this happen and the two cells connect/touch, a tube forms, called a conjugation tube allowing for the transfer of information. This transfer is bacterial transformation.

3. Plasmid & Retrovirus
A plasmid is normally found in bacteria as a small set of genes on it. Plasmids are normally goes through replication with bacterial chromosomes, as well. A retrovirus is an RNA virus that infects DNA of an individual, by changing/adding a virus during S phase or cell replication. Because plasmids are not complex it is easier and much more like for it to be infected by a retrovirus and be replicated and spread.

4. Operator & Hydrolysis
An operator is a place were regulator proteins come and bind in order to stop the process of transcription. Hydrolysis is when there is a lose of a water molecule(s), after a reaction occurs. When something binds to the operator, the reaction causes for there to be a lose of a water molecule, which is hydrolysis

5. Okazaki Fragments & Restriction enzymes
Restriction Enzymes are enzymes that make DNA replication more difficult because it cuts DNA, in the 5’ to 3’ direction. As the restriction enzyme cuts the DNA in half, the side that goes from 5’ to 3’. Okazaki Fragments, are segments of DNA that are not yet connected or brought together; this happens during DNA replication , the connection between the two is that because replication is going in the 5’ to 3’ direction, it causes Okazaki fragments to form.


III. A few essentials to take away from these sections
1. The expression of a certain gene (i.e. whether the protein that the gene codes for gets made)
can be activated (turned-on) or inhibited (turned-off) at any one of the many stages of protein
synthesis. Briefly summarize how gene expression can be regulated at each stage of protein
synthesis.
During Transcription, DNA is copied into mRNA, with the help of many different proteins that come together in different combinations, which effect and heavily influence the purpose of the cell when it gets transcribed. The nuclear envelope of the cell control when the mRNA reaches a ribosome. In order for the mRNA to reach the ribosome different proteins have to attach to the mRNA in order for it to get through the nuclear envelope, and there is a base sequence that tells the proteins on the mRNA where to go. During translation, a lot of molecules come together to either begin/initiate or create stability with the mRNA and ribosome. For example translation can be inhibited (mRNA cannot attach to a ribosome) if a certain protein doesn’t bind to it.

2. Sketch a diagram of the lac-operon, labeling each of its parts and summarizing how the
individual parts of the operon function to regulated gene expression in E. coli.
See note card. E. Coli is a bacteria that lives in the large intestine and feeds off of glucose and lactose.

3. Briefly summarize the process of Gel electrophoresis being used to acquire an organism’s DNA fingerprint. .
Gel electrophoresis is a process by which cells can sort fragments of DNA. As DNA fragment move around through an electric field, afterwards, it will go through a semisolid slab in response. However the length of the fragment determines how fast it’ll get through the field (or if it will get across at all). The short the fragment the further it goes. As the fragment reaches the end of the spectrum the color is revealed showing the DNA sequence and each sequence is called a fingerprint

4. Briefly differentiate between a eukaryotic genome and a prokaryotic genome (see 21.2), then discuss how the process of DNA replication differs in prokaryotes.
A Eukaryotic cell is a multiple chromosomed molecule with double-helixes that has the ability to stand alone. Because eukaryotic cells have multiple chromosomes, it undergoes mitosis, which separates each chromosome and copies them. A prokaryotic cell is a single bacterial chromosome that has a circular shape. Another difference between to two is that a prokaryotic cells division is much simpler because there is only one chromosome copy.

5. Summarize the lytic cycle and differentiate this from the lysogenic cycle.
In the lytic cycle the virus has a vesicle that will inject its DNA into the cell, replicate and the lyses continuing the process with other cells. The lysogenic cycle insert its DNA in the bacteria cells DNA then continues with the lytic cycle.