GLOBALIZATION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Source:  GLOBALIZATION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES    Tag:  wikipedia sars
Globalization is an economic, technological, social, and cultural, due to increased communication and interdependence among countries in the world, which produces the systematic unification of markets, societies and cultures. “This occurs through a series of social, economic and policies that give its global character. Globalization is often identified as a dynamic process of open economies and borders, as a result of increased trade, capital movements, the movement of people and ideas, dissemination of information, knowledge and techniques, and a process of deregulation. This process, both geographically and sectorally, is not recent, but has accelerated in recent years (Globalization meaning) ”. Globalization has helped to spread some of the deadly infectious diseases endemic to human beings on a global scale for two reasons.

The first reason is the transportation. In the edge of globalization, the world is more dependent than ever and transportation, was once a barrier, has become in the most efficient and inexpensive media to unite people and countries; which has left few places inaccessible to trade . The increase in this global trade, especially agricultural, and animal’s products, has been a greater contact between people and animals. Because of this, animal diseases, various types of influenza, and similar infectious diseases have jumped species barriers (such as avian or Swine influenza) .

The Globalization has produced consequences adversely, in terms of health and environment . The improvements in transportation that are a facet of globalization have also made it possible for the rapid spread of infectious diseases around the globe. One example of this, is thee rapid advance of a deadly form of pneumonia (SARS), when spread from China throughout the globe. “Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS commonly abbreviated) is an atypical pneumonia that first appeared, in November 2002 in Guangdong Province, China. It spread to neighboring Hong Kong and Vietnam, in late February 2003 and then to other countries via air travel by infected people or land. The disease has a mortality rate of global average near 15%.”

The second reason is consequence of the other, “the World Tourist.” Travel, trade, and international tourism, have grown extensively and provide efficient transport for pathogens and their vectors. They also increase the exposure of humans to "new" diseases, to which they have little or no resistance. Those infectious diseases are caused by the presence and activity of one or more agents including pathogenic like viruses, bacteria, protozoa, multicellular parasites, and others . Etiology , recognizes that these diseases are transmitted by different ways including direct or indirect contact, ingestion (in water or food), transmission of human fluids; inhalation of airborne particles, transmission by vectors such as mosquitoes, fleas and ticks, and others . As humans began traveling over seas and across lands, which were previously isolated, research suggests that diseases have been spread by all transmission ways .

The geographical boundaries, which previously had these diseases has been disappearing through history. The first global infectious diseases that spread in the world (then known) came from Asia to Europe; it is the bubonic plague (of deliveries to the Romans in the second century AD). In modern times, various types of influenza, as the Spanish flu, which killed 20 million people, after the First World War, and infectious diseases like SARS, 2003 influenza are just some examples of this deadly disease .

In many countries (especially poorest), what little resources they have is not enough to care health issues, because it leaves these countries are open to diseases that spread due to the lack of proper health-care systems, and of the appropriate technology needed to produce clean water and a sufficient food supply to stave off such sicknesses. New strains of old diseases with different immunological characteristics, more virulent, and different reactions to antibiotics; are often responsible for new outbreaks of these diseases. Germs can suddenly emerge as new threats of disease to acquire the ability to initiate new infections and diseases, or to alter the human host's natural ability to mount an adequate immune defense. Examples, include influenza, cholera, tuberculosis, and others. The greatest fear of man is that these negative effects of globalization, producing a global pandemic to end the human race.


Bibliography


GLOBALIZATION (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved October 25, 2010, from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globalization

INFECTIOUS DISEASE (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved October 25, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infectious_disease

SARS (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved October 25, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome

SWINE INFLUENZA (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved October 25, 2010, from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swine_influenza

GLOBALIZATION. (2010, May 24). Globalization meaning. Retrieved from http://www.answers.com/topic/globalization