BiolOgiCal HaZarDs!!!

Source:  BiolOgiCal HaZarDs!!!    Tag:  nora virus
Food-borne biological hazards include bacterial, viral and parasitic organisms. These organisms are commonly associated with humans and with raw products entering the cooked food. Most pathogenic microorganism are ceased or inactivated by adequate cooking and cooling during production, distribution and storage.

The majority of reported food-borne disease outbreaks are resulted from bacterial pathogens. Temperature abuse, such as improper hot or cold holding temperatures, can significantly cause foodborne disease. Cooked food which has been subject to cross-contamination with pathogens often provides a favorable medium for rapid and progressive growth.

Enteric viruses can be food-borne, water-borne or transmitted from a person or from animals. Unlike bacteria, a virus cannot multiply outside of a living cell. Hepatitis A and Norwalk viruses are examples of viral hazards associated with ready-to-eat foods.

Parasites are most often animal-host specific and can include humans in their life cycles. Parasitic infections are commonly associated with undercooking meat products or cross-contamination of ready-to-eat food. Fish-borne parasites in products that are intended to be eaten raw, marinated or partially cooked can be killed by effective freezing techniques. The following are some of the biological hazards:
• Nora Virus
• Clostridium botulinum
• Shigella dysenteries
• Trichinella spiralis
• Listeria monocytogenes
• Salmonella spp
• Shigella spp
• Enterovirulent Escherichia coli (EEC)
• Rotavirus
• Norwalk virus group
• Entamoeba histolytica
• Bacillus cereus
• Campylobacter jejuni
• Clostridium perfringens