communicable and non communicable disease

Source:  communicable and non communicable disease    Tag:  bacterial communicable diseases

Meningitis


Meningitis is a relatively rare infection that affects the delicate membranes called meninges (men-in'-jeez that cover the brain and spinal cord. Bacterial meningitis can be contagious among people in close contact.

Viral meningitis tends to be less severe, and most people recover completely.




Causes

Meningitis is almost always caused by a bacterial or viral infection that began elsewhere in the body, such as in the ears, sinuses, or upper respiratory tract. Less common causes of meningitis include fungal infection, autoimmune disorders, and medications.

 Bacterial meningitis is caused by any one of several bacteria. Neisseria meningitidis or "meningococcus" is common in children and young adults, and Streptococcuspneumoniae or "pneumococcus" is another common cause in children and adults. Haemophilus influenzae type b Hib was a common cause of meningitis in infants and young children until the Hib vaccine was introduced for infants. Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae account for most of the bacterial meningitis cases in the U.S. Vaccines are available for both Neisseria meningitidis and 
Streptococcus pneumoniae. They're recommended for all children and adults at special risk.

Tests

Complete blood count, to check for signs of infection.
Blood culture, to check for infections.
Urine test, to check for infection in the urinary tract.
Chest X-ray, to check for lung infections.
Biopsy of a skin rash.CT scan or MRI, to look for swelling of brain tissue or for complications such as brain damage.