Chapter 15, 16, 21

Source:  Chapter 15, 16, 21    Tag:  the lytic cycle
Lysogenic & Binary Fission- Lysogenic is a process of viral reproduction which characterized by integration of the bacteriophage nucleic acid onto the host bacterium genome. It’s related to Binary Fission because binary fission is the primary method of reproduction of prokaryotic organisms. It differentiates into types, depending on the axis of cell separation. Since they are all a method of producing different things, therefore, they are related to each others.
Conjugation & Bacterial transformation- Conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contract or by a bridge- like connection between two cells. Bacterial transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake, incorporate of exogenous genetic material from its surrounding and taken up through the cell membrane. They are related to each others because they are all directing cells to one direction.
Plasmid & Retrovirus- A plasmid is a DNA molecule that is separate from, and able to replicate independently of the chromosomal DNA. A retrovirus is an RNA virus that is replicated in a host cell via the enzyme reverse transcriptase to produce DNA from its RNA genome. They are related to each others because both of them are using differ methods to produce DNA. In plasmid, the DNA molecule just replicated by itself independently, and in retrovirus, DNA just derives from RNA.
Operator & Hydrolysis- Operator is a binding site for a type of regulatory protein known as repressor, which stops transcription. During hydrolysis, an enzyme splits a molecule, and then the components of water are attached to the fragments. They both are related to each other because they all need to use enzymes to achieve their jobs.
Okazaki Fragments & Restriction enzymes- An Okazaki fragment is a relatively short of DNA created on the lagging strand during DNA replication. Each Okazaki fragment is initiated near the replication fork at the RNA primer created by primase. A restriction enzyme is an enzyme that cuts double- stranded or single stranded DNA at specific recognition nucleotide sequences known as restriction sites. They are related to each others because Okazaki fragment is restricted by enzymes. And those enzymes determine the jobs for Okazaki fragment.
A few essentials to take away from these sections
1. There are three stages of protein synthesis: Initiation, Elongation, and Termination. During the stage of initiation, protein synthesis begins with the formation of a complex of the small ribosomal subunit. This special initiation tRNA carries methionine. It binds directly to the P site on the small ribosomal subunit. Once all the conditions are met, it will begin codon of the mRNA, which is the large ribosomal subunit, and begins the initiation.
During Elongation, ribosome assembles with methionine tRNA and bounds in the P site. A peptide bonds are formed between the two amino acids and the new peptide bonds are transferred to the tRNA, which it just came in, leaving the methionine empty. Thus, the process continues, and it creates a longer amino acid sequence.
During Termination, Translation ends when one of the three top codons is bound in the A site by a release factor that resembles tRNA. This makes the new RNA strands.

3. Automated DNA reveals the order of nucleotides in DNA fragments rapidly. As DNA polymerase copies a template DNA, the longer fragments stop growing as soon as one of four different fluorescent stop growing as soon as one of the four fluorescent attaches to them. Then, electrophoresis separates the labeled fragments into bands according to length. The shorter fragments will move faster than the longer fragments. The order of the colored bands as they migrate through the gel reflects which fluorescent base was added to the end of each fragment, and it indicates the template DNA base sequence. After it gets the entire DNA organized, it can get your fingerprint.
4. In prokaryotic genome, only bacteria and archaeans divide by prokaryotic fission: replication of a single, circular bacterial chromosome and division of a parent cell into two genetically equivalent daughter cells. Many species have plasmid, and prokaryotic genome can transfer plasmids to cells of the same of different species of bacterial conjugation. In eukaryotic cells, they use conjugation to divide cells instead of fission.
5. Lytic cycles are cycles of viral reproduction. The lytic cyle involves the multiplication of bacteria, and at the end of the cycle, the cells are destroyed. The different between the lytic cycle and the lysogenic cycles is that the lysogenic cycle is the initial cycle that occurs before the lytic cycle. The lytic cycle is prokaryotic cell, and the lysogenic cycle is for eukaryotic cells.