‘in the sense that they follow deductively once we assert the appropriate natural law’. (11)
An event of type C has occurred. But whenever an event of type C occurs, an event of type E later occurs.
"A defender of Hume on the contingency of causal connections might nevertheless object that although the inference is deductively valid, and to that extent carries necessity from assumptions to conclusion, the conclusion itself is not necessary unless the assumptions are also logically necessary, and that no scientific laws correlating causes to effects are logically necessary." (11)
"Again, it might be questioned whether the logical necessity obtaining between the assumptions and conclusion of a valid inference about real world events necessarily qualifies or attaches to the events themselves… " (11)
i) The logical necessity obtaining between the assumptions and conclusion of a valid inference about real world events.
ii) The logical necessity obtaining between events in the real world or between event type C and event type E.