Novel Phlebovirus with Zoonotic Potential Isolated from Ticks, Australia - Volume 20, Number 6—June 2014 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

FULL-TEXT ►

Novel Phlebovirus with Zoonotic Potential Isolated from Ticks, Australia - Volume 20, Number 6—June 2014 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC



link to Volume 20, Number 6—June 2014

Volume 20, Number 6—June 2014

Dispatch

Novel Phlebovirus with Zoonotic Potential Isolated from Ticks, Australia

Jianning Wang 1, Paul Selleck 1, Meng Yu 1, Wendy Ha, Chrissy Rootes, Rosemary Gales, Terry Wise, Sandra Crameri, Honglei Chen, Ivano Broz, Alex Hyatt, Rupert Woods, Brian Meehan, Sam McCullough, and Lin-Fa Wang Comments to Author 
Author affiliations:  Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Geelong, Victoria, Australia (J. Wang, P. Selleck, M. Yu, W. Ha, C. Rootes, T. Wise, S. Crameri, H. Chen, I. Broz, A. Hyatt, B. Meehan, S. McCullough, L.-F. Wang); Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia (R. Gales)Australian Wildlife Health Network, Mosman, New South Wales, Australia (R. Woods)Duke–National University of Singapore Graduate Medical School, Singapore (L.-F. Wang)

Abstract

Recently discovered tick-borne phleboviruses have been associated with severe disease and death among persons in Asia and the United States. We report the discovery of a novel tick phlebovirus in Tasmania State, Australia, that is closely related to those zoonotic viruses found in Asia and North America.
Viruses in the family  Bunyaviridae can infect animals and plants ( 1). The family is composed of 5 genera:  OrthobunyavirusPhlebovirusNairovirusHantavirus, and  Tospovirus ( 2). The genus Phlebovirus contains known disease agents of animals, including humans, that can be carried by different vectors (e.g., phlebotomine sandflies, mosquitoes, and ticks) ( 3). In 2009, an outbreak of an acute febrile illness, known as severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), occurred in China. During an investigation of the outbreak, a previously unknown bunyavirus from the tick  Haemaphysalis longicornis was identified as the causative agent of SFTS ( 4). SFTS virus (SFTSV) has since been shown to be responsible for >150 human infections in 16 Chinese provinces and to have an associated death rate of ≈12% ( 5, 6).
In June 2009, in northwestern Missouri, United States, 2 men from 2 geographically distant farms were hospitalized for fever, fatigue, diarrhea, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. Both men had been bitten by ticks 5–7 days before the onset of symptoms. A virus was isolated from the leukocytes of each patient and later identified as a novel phlebovirus by next-generation sequencing. The 2 viruses were highly related (98%, 95%, and 99% sequence identity for the small, medium, and large viral genome segments, respectively), indicating that the men were independently infected with the same virus. This new virus, named Heartland virus (HRTV), was most closely related to, but clearly distinct from, the SFTSV detected in China ( 7).
Subsequent to these disease events in China and the United States, fatal SFTSV infections were reported in humans in Japan ( 8) and Korea ( 9). Because similar viruses and human infections have been detected in 2 well-separated continents (i.e., Asia and North America), it is tempting to hypothesize that similar viruses may also exist in tick populations on other continents. We report the isolation and characterization of a phlebovirus from ticks in Australia that is similar to SFTSV and HRTV.

Dr Wang is a research scientist in charge of the molecular diagnostics group at CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory. His research interests include novel molecular diagnostics and pathogen discovery.

Acknowledgment

We thank Richmond Loh for providing diagnostic samples, Ian Beveridge for help with tick species identification, and Mary Tachedjian and Volker Haring for technical advice on next-generation sequencing data analysis.

References

  1. Elliott RMSchmaljohn CSBunyaviridae. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, editors. Fields virology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013. p. 1244–82.
  2. Plyusnin ABeaty BJElliott RMGoldback RKormelink RLundkvist AFamily Bunyaviridae. In: King AMQ, Adams MJ, Carstens EB, Lefkowitz EJ, editors. Virus taxonomy: ninth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. London: Elsevier; 2011. p. 725–41.
  3. Bouloy M. Molecular biology of phleboviruses. In: Plyusnin A, Elliott RM, editors.Bunyaviridae, molecular and cellular biology. Norwich (UK): Caister Academic Press; 2011. p. 95–128.
  4. Yu XJLiang MFZhang SYLiu YLi JDSun YLFever with thrombocytopenia associated with a novel bunyavirus in China. N Engl J Med2011;364:152332DOIExternal Web Site IconPubMedExternal Web Site Icon
  5. Zhang XLiu YZhao LLi BYu HWen HAn emerging hemorrhagic fever in China caused by a novel bunyavirus SFTSV. Sci China Life Sci. 2013;56:697–700.
  6. Liu YLi QHu WWu JWang YMei LPerson-to-person transmission of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis2012;12:15660DOIExternal Web Site IconPubMedExternal Web Site Icon
  7. McMullan LKFolk SMKelly AJMacNeil AGoldsmith CSMetcalfe MGA new phlebovirus associated with severe febrile illness in Missouri. N Engl J Med2012;367:83441DOIExternal Web Site IconPubMedExternal Web Site Icon
  8. Takahashi TMaeda KSuzuki TIshido AShigeok TTominaga TThe first identification and retrospective study of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Japan. J Infect Dis2014;209:81627DOIExternal Web Site IconPubMedExternal Web Site Icon
  9. Kim KHYi JKim GChoi SJJun KIKim NHSevere fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, South Korea, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis2013;19:18924DOIExternal Web Site IconPubMedExternal Web Site Icon
  10. Lambert AJLanciotti RSConsensus amplification and novel multiplex sequencing method for S segment species identification of 47 viruses of the Orthobunyavirus, Phlebovirus, and Nairovirus genera of the family Bunyaviridae. J Clin Microbiol.2009;47:2398404DOIExternal Web Site IconPubMedExternal Web Site Icon
  11. Glenn TC. Field guide to next-generation DNA sequencers. Mol Ecol Resour.2011;11:759–69.External Web Site Icon
  12. Zhang HTodd STachedjian MBarr JALuo MYu MA novel bat herpesvirus encodes homologues of major histocompatibility complex classes I and II, C-type lectin, and a unique family of immune-related genes. J Virol2012;86:801430DOIExternal Web Site IconPubMedExternal Web Site Icon
  13. Li ZYu MZhang HWang HYWang LFImproved rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) for mapping both the 5′ and 3′ terminal sequences of paramyxovirus genomes. J Virol Methods2005;130:1546DOIExternal Web Site IconPubMedExternal Web Site Icon
  14. Wang LFGould ARSelleck PWExpression of equine morbillivirus (EMV) matrix and fusion proteins and their evaluation as diagnostic reagents. Arch Virol.1997;142:226979DOIExternal Web Site IconPubMedExternal Web Site Icon
  15. Yu MStevens VBerry JDCrameri GMcEachern JTu CDetermination and application of immunodominant regions of SARS coronavirus spike and nucleocapsid proteins recognized by sera from different animal species. J Immunol Methods2008;331:112 . DOIExternal Web Site IconPubMedExternal Web Site Icon

Figures

Table

Suggested citation for this article: Wang J, Selleck P, Yu M, Ha W, Rootes C, Gales R, et al. Novel phlebovirus with zoonotic potential isolated from ticks, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 June ( date cited).  http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2006.140003External Web Site Icon
DOI: 10.3201/eid2006.140003
1These authors contributed equally to this article.